Saturday, 29 July 2017

gable and cephalopod

grimpoteuthis

Proto-Indo-European *ghebh-(e)l- "head" became Proto-Germanic *ǥaƀlaz "top of a pitched roof", then Old Norse gafl, borrowed into Old French as gable, then borrowed into English as gable.

In Greek *ghebh-(e)l-became κεϕαλή kephalē "head", which was borrowed into English as cephalopod with Greek πούς, ποδ- pous, pod- "foot". Cephalopods were so named because their feet are attached to their head, altho they are usually called arms.

In Tocharian A, *ghebh-(e)l- became śpāl "head".

2 comments :

ambarish said...

And kapāla (skull) in Sanskrit, as in kapālīśvara (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kapaleeshwarar_Temple) or kāpālika (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kapalika).

But that makes me wonder how come the two phonemes lost voicing in both Greek and Sanskrit but not in Proto-Germanic. I thought Indo-Aryan languages branched off PIE earlier than Greek and Proto-Germanic split.

goofy said...

So according to the American Dictionary of Indo-European roots, kephalē is from a dissimilated form of *ghebh-el-: *kephal-.

Sanskrit kapā́la- is not from *ghebh-el-, it is from a different PIE form, *kap-ut-.

http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=config&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Cpokorny&first=1&off=&text_root=&method_root=substring&ic_root=on&text_meaning=head&method_meaning=substring&ic_meaning=on&text_ger_mean=&method_ger_mean=substring&ic_ger_mean=on&text_grammar=&method_grammar=substring&ic_grammar=on&text_comments=&method_comments=substring&ic_comments=on&text_derivative=&method_derivative=substring&ic_derivative=on&text_material=&method_material=substring&ic_material=on&text_ref=&method_ref=substring&ic_ref=on&text_seealso=&method_seealso=substring&ic_seealso=on&text_pages=529&method_pages=substring&ic_pages=on&text_any=&method_any=substring&sort=number&ic_any=on

http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=config&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Cpokorny&first=1&off=&text_root=&method_root=substring&ic_root=on&text_meaning=head&method_meaning=substring&ic_meaning=on&text_ger_mean=&method_ger_mean=substring&ic_ger_mean=on&text_grammar=&method_grammar=substring&ic_grammar=on&text_comments=&method_comments=substring&ic_comments=on&text_derivative=&method_derivative=substring&ic_derivative=on&text_material=&method_material=substring&ic_material=on&text_ref=&method_ref=substring&ic_ref=on&text_seealso=&method_seealso=substring&ic_seealso=on&text_pages=423&method_pages=substring&ic_pages=on&text_any=&method_any=substring&sort=number&ic_any=on


Fortson says "it is widely thought that Indo-Iranian forms a subgroup with Greek, Armenian, and Phrygian" but that this is not settled.